Day 1: Introduction
SalamAlaikum people! Ramadan Kareem ?
Islam is a complete way of life, and as such it adresses every aspect of human life ranging from personal and family matters to social, economic, political, and spiritual issues. The teachings of Islam are therefore devised, to enable mankind attain prosperity in this life and in hereafter.
Today, on the first day of Ramadan, I’m gonna give you a brief introduction on Ahkam e Shariat which provide every Muslim with a key to a righteous life. See
Ahkam, the plural of Hukm is a reference to the Islamic commandments. In Arabic, the term sharīʿah refers to God’s immutable divine law and is contrasted with fiqh, which refers to its human scholarly interpretations.
Islam has distinguished these laws into 5 different categories, namely WAJIB, HARAM, MUSTAHAB, MAKROOH AND MUBAH
Now, let’s understand these terms briefly:
- The first one is WAJIB, what does it mean?
The word “Wajib” means essential or necessary. Technically, it is an act of obligation that must be performed, and abandoning it is a sin and causes Divine punishment. There are several categorisations for Wajib. The most important obligatory acts in Islam are known as Furu’ al-Din, the most famous of which are ten.
Al-Amr bi l-Ma’ruf (Enjoining good)
Al-Nahi ‘an al-Munkar (Forbidding evil)
- you can checkout my videos from last year’s Ramadan to know about these acts in detail
- Haram: In Islamic jurisprudence, Ḥarām is an action that is prohibited and people are asked to avoid it and the one who commits it is a sinner and it will cause him punishment. Ḥurma (prohibition) is one the Five Rulings (al-Ahkam al-Khamasa) and stands for the prohibition of the Haram act.
Acts like backbiting, lying, theft, adultery etc, are considered Haram in Islam.
- Mustahab: Mustaḥabb is a jurisprudential term referring to actions and practices that according to Islamic laws, are recommended, as their fulfilment is rewarded, yet they’re not obligatory, thus leaving them is permissible.
Night prayer (Salat al-Layl), Daily Nawafil (daily mustahabb prayers), mustahab fastings, supplications, and many other practices are counted among mustahabb acts.
Reciting the Qur’an, having Wudu constantly, and giving Sadaqa are Some other acts that have been mentioned in Ahadith as Mustahabb.
4.MAKRUH: Makrūh, or alternatively “Kiraha” which literally means “disliked” or “unpleasant” is one of the Five Rulings. It is an action which is not haram, but it had better not be done, and be abandoned.
For example, urination while standing is makruh, that is, although it is not forbidden, one had better not do it. Drinking water while standing and eating while walking are other makruh acts.
- The last ruling “Mubah” is the most common one among the Five Rulings (al-Ahkam al-Khamsa) as most of the human deeds are mubah.
Mubāḥ is a jurisprudential term denoting an action that has no specific ruling, so doing or avoiding it is equal and it has no Divine Reward or Punishment.
In other words, mubah is an action that is not wajib, haram, mustahab nor makruh, therefore, a mukallaf is completely free to do or leave the action, such as eating or sleeping – which do not have any ruling in normal conditions and one can either do or leave these actions.
The terms Mubah and Halal differ as, in fiqh, halal is defined as the opposite of haram and includes everything that is not haram. Based on this, halal is more general than mubah, that is, every mubah is halal; but not every halal is mubah.
As a part of the measure to attain prosperity, a muslim needs to conduct his or her affairs according to these teachings of Islam and behave and respond accordingly in all aspects of life, from the time of puberty or when he or she becomes a ‘baligh’.
Which for females, happens at the age of 9, and for males at the age of 15, and that’s when a Muslim child becomes an adult and accountable to Allah for his/her actions. An adult Muslim thus has the duty to learn the teachings of Islam although every conduct constitutes an act of worship, no matter what aspect of life it may concern. Traditionally, ‘the acts of worship’ mean the issues such as ritual cleanliness, the obligatory daily prayers, fasting, the hajj pilgrimage, zakah or the Islamic tax, as well as the Islamic doctrine(aqaid), etc.
That’s it for today, tomorrow we’ll learn about an another important aspect of Islamic ruling, called “Taqleed”